Salt，shells or metals are still used as money in out of- he way parts of the world today.Salt may seem rather a strange(19)_______to use as money，(20)_______in countries where the food of the people is mainly vegetable，it is often an(21)_______necessity.Cakesb of salt，stamped to show their(22)_______，were used as money in some countries until recent(23)_______ ，and cakes of salt(24)_______buy goods in Borneo and parts of Africa.
Sea shells(25)_______as money at some time(26)_______another over the greater part of the Old world.These were(27)_______mainly from the beaches of the Maldives Islands in the
Indian Ocean，and were traded to India and China.In Africa，shells were traded tigh acrossthe(28)_______from East to West.
Metal，valued by weight，(29)_______ coins in many parts of the world.Iron，in lumps，bars or rings，is still used in many countries(30)_______paper money.It Can either be exchanged(31)_______goods，or made into tools，weapons，or ornaments.The early money of China，apart from shells，was of bronze，(32) _______in flat，round pieces with a hole in the middle，called“cash”.The(33) _______of these are between three thousand and four thousand years old older than the earliest coins of the eastern Mediterranean.
Nowadays，coins and notes have replaced nearly all the more picturesque forms of money，and while in one or two of the more remote countries people still hold it for future use on ceremonial occasions such as weddings and funerals，examples of primitive money will soon be found only in museums.
Working an eight-hour day is a luxury for most professional people. Nowadays, the only way to guarantee an eight-hour working day is to have the kind of job where you clock on and off. Those professionals who have managed to limit their hours to what was, ~0 years ago, the average do not wish to identify themselves. "I can quite easily achieve my work within a normal day, but I don't like to draw attention to it," says one sales manager."People looked at me when I leave at 5 o'clock. Now, I put paperwork in my bag. People assume I'm doing extra hours at home. "
But more typical is Mark, who works as an account manager. He says, "My contract says I work from 9 until 5 with extra hours as necessary. It sounds as if the extra hours are exceptional. In fact, my job would be enough not only for me, but also for someone else part- time. The idea of an eight-hour day makes me laugh!" He says he has thought about going freelance but realizes that this doesn't guarantee better working hours.
Professors Cary Cooper, occupational psycholo- gist at the University of Manchester, is the author of the annual Quality of Working Life survey. The most recent survey found that 77% of managers in Britain work more than their contracted hours, and that this is having a damaging effect on their health, relationships and productivity. Professor Cooper is critical of the long-hours culture. He says that while bosses believe long hours lead to greater efficiency, there is no evidence to support this. "In fact, the evidence shows that long hours make you ill. "
There am, he says, steps that can be taken. One is to accept that the in-tray will never be empty."There are always things to do. You just have to make the rule that on certain days you go home early. " Prioritising work and doing essential tasks first helps, he says. He also thinks it's time to criticize bad employers and unreasonable terms of employment. " By all means, show commitment where necessary but when expectations are too high, people have to begin saying openly that they have a life outside of work. "
Personal development coach Mo Shapiro agrees that communication is important. Staff need to talk to managers about the working practices within a company. Both parties should feel that the expectations are realistic and allow them to have responsibilities and interests outside work. She recongnises, however, that in many organizations the response might well be, "If you want more interests outside work, then find another job. "
She believes that senior staff have a duty to set an example. "I recently worked for a finn of solicitors where the partners started at 7:30 a. m. What kind of message is that to send to the staff?" She believes there is no shame in working sensible hours in fact quite the reserve."Some people might be in at 7. 30 am but will be doing very little. You can work really hard from9 to 5 and achieve the same. If you find it difficult to achieve an eight-hour day, there is, as a last resort, the old trick of leaving your jacket on your chair and your computers switched on, even after you have left the building. "
What does the writer say in the first paragraph about people who work an eight-hour day?
A.They are reluctant to admit to this.
B.They are disliked by their colleagues.
C.They are limited to certain professions.
D.They often catch up on work in the evenings.
15 June 1993
Ms. Martha Weston
Word Processing Supervisor
Post Office Box 1072
28 King's Street London
Dear Ms. Weston,
Performance of the CPT Equipment
I'm pleased to tell you about our experience with the CPT Word Processor as you requested recently. G (example) I assume you have looked at several machines and have narrowed down your choices. Here are my observations.
An approach to adopting word processors
Eighteen months ago we adopted CPT equipment on limited scale with the idea in mind that we could gradually get rid of electric typewriters as we became familiar with the word processor. (8)_______The stations are arranged in pairs so each pair can share a common
printer. (9)_______We use the equipment as dedicated word processors, although we do have the ability to link up with our computer installations.
The step-at-a-time development of our word-processing center has, we think, saved us money and training time. (10)_______Performance
In terms of performance, the CPT equipment is excellent. (11)_______ Moreover our service contract and warranty have covered all maintenance costs. We have software packages that check spelling and signal when a mistake occurs. (12)_______Using both printers, we recently prepared 1, 200 individually typed letters for mailing in under four hours. We have no complaint about our preparation of executive reports.
A.We have not yet experienced mechanical problems SO far.
B.Also it has reduced the confusion that exists about buying software packages.
C.The train stops at each station for only fifteen minutes.
D.We began with two work stations and now have four.
E.Our routine letters are prepared from disc—stored masters.
F.The Rotary W printer prints with a speed of 45 characters a second can easily handle two input stations.
G.We are pleased with its performance and multi-functions.
0 If consumers in Hillsborough County could limited their spending on one Saturday
00 to independent, locally owned businesses instead of chain stores, more than
34 $ 17 million would even remain in the local company instead of being shipped to
35 outside corporations as overnight deposits. So it say representatives of the
36 Tampa Independent Business Alliance, who base their calculation on studies that
37 made by the American Independent Business Alliance. The national study found
38 that since locally owned businesses began to use goods and services of other
39 business in the community, a consumer's spending circulates 3 up to 31/2
40 times longer locally than if it is spent on at a chain. On Saturday, the local group
41 will be working with the national organization and more than all 25 other
42 communities across the country to broadcast the benefits coming of the
43 shop-local movement. The educational event, "American Unchained", will be
44 promoted at independent business such as Inkwood Books in Tampa, "We
45 want people to think about where their dollars actually end up to," said Carla Jimenez, coowner of Inkwood and president of Tampa Independent Business Alliance.