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2015年GMAT长难句阅读理解训练1

2015年GMAT长难句阅读理解训练1

分类:GMAT   更新:2015/4/16   来源:网络

2015年GMAT长难句阅读理解训练1

    Some geologists,however,on the basis of observations concerning mantle xenoliths, argue that the mantle is not layered,but that heterogeneity
    is created by fluids rich in "incompatible elements" (elements tending toward liquid rather than solid state)percolating upward and transforming
    portions of the upper mantle irregularly,according to the vagaries of the fluids’ pathways. (4+)
    但是,某些地质学家,以对地幔捕虏岩体(xenolith)所作的观察为依据,指出地幔并非是分层排列的,相反,地幔的异质性是由那些富含“不相容成分”的流质构成的,这些成分趋向于流体而非固体的状态,自下而上渗透扩散,并依照这些流质流向的任意性,不规则地将上部地幔的某些部分予以改变。
    难句类型:复杂修饰、插入语
    解释:本句的主句中有一个长插入语however,on the basis of observations concerning mantle xenoliths,割裂了主谓,但句子的主要难度还是在that引导的宾语从句中,从句中有由but 所连接的两个句子,一起延续到句末。首选是rich in incompatible elements修饰fluids;后面又有一个同位语和一个分词结构,都是修饰incompatible elements的,最后还有一个状语来修饰那个分词结构,层层修饰,比较复杂。
    意群训练:Some geologists,however,on the basis of observations concerning mantle xenoliths, argue that the mantle is not layered,but that heterogeneity is created by fluids rich in "incompatible elements" (elements tending toward liquid rather than solid state)percolating upward and transforming portions of the upper mantle irregularly,according to the vagaries of the fluids’ pathways.
    2015年GMAT考试长难句阅读理解训练 第二发
    The best evidence for the layered-mantle thesis is the well-established fact that volcanic rocks found on oceanic islands,islands believed to result from mantle plumes arising from the lower mantle,are composed of material fundamentally different from that of the mid-ocean ridge system,whose source,most geologists contend,is the upper mantle. (5 -)
    对于地幔分层论点来说,最好的证据乃这样一个确认的事实,即在那些海洋岛屿——这些岛屿据信是源于由下层地幔升上来的地幔柱状溶岩流(mantle plume)——上发现的火山岩石,是由与海洋中部山脊系统的物质根本不同的物质构成的,而这一海洋中部山脊系统的成因,大多数地质学家论辩道,为上部地幔。
    难句类型:复杂修饰、插入语
    解释:本句前面的主干并不算难,即the evidence is the fact that,难就难在fact之后说明fact 的同位语从句。此从句中既有大段插入语,又有从句,较为难读。同位语从句的主语是volcanic rocks,主语后面的found on oceanic islands是分词修饰volcanic rocks的;islands后面又有一个说明islands的同位语islands believed to result from mantle plumes arising from the lower mantle,此同位语实际起到一个分隔主谓的同位语的作用。其后是谓语动词are composed/of fundamentally different from that of the midocean ridge system, whose source, most geologists contend, is the upper mantle。句中有一些专有词汇。如果抛开文章不说,单看这一个句子,则句首的layered mantle thesis就难以理解。但是如果读者能够读懂句子的大致意思,看到layered mantle thesisr最有力证据就是其材料fundamentally different from… the upper mantle,这应该可以推测出,既然不同于上层地幔,则这个理论一定是在说地幔有不同的层面。
    意群训练:The best evidence for the layered-mantle thesis is the well-established fact that volcanic rocks found on oceanic islands,islandsbelieved to result from mantle plumes arising from the lower mantle,arecomposed of material fundamentally different from that of the mid-ocean ridge system, whose source,most geologists contend,is the upper mantle.
    2015年GMAT考试长难句阅读理解训练 第三发
    A critique of Handlin’s interpretation of why legal slavery did not appear until the 1660’s suggests that assumptions about the relation between slavery and racial prejudice should be reexamined , and that explanations for the different treatment of Black slaves in North and South America should be expanded .(4)
    一个对于H的关于为何法律上的奴隶制没有在17世纪60年代以前出现的原因所作解释的批评显示,关于奴隶制和种族偏见之间的关系的假说应当重新检查,而且显示出,对于在北美和南美之间的对黑怒的不同处理的解释应当被扩展。
    难句类型:复杂修饰、省略
    解释:句子的主干清楚:A critique suggests that…, and suggests that…。但是因为句子的结构复杂、修饰成分多,再加上后面的and 之后的suggests被省略,所以句子的结构很难被读出来的。本句的suggest不再是暗示,而是显示、说明的意思,其同义词有
    point,indicate,imply。本句的两个suggest之后的宾语从句都根据语法要求使用了虚拟语气。
    意群训练:A critique of Handlin’s interpretation of why legal slavery did not appear until the 1660’s suggests that assumptions about the relation between slavery and racial prejudice should be reexamined , and that explanations for the different treatment of Black slaves in North and South America should be expanded .

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