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试管受精新技术是否能够进入人体实验阶段

试管受精新技术是否能够进入人体实验阶段

分类:科技Science   更新:2015/5/23   来源:history

试管受精新技术是否能够进入人体实验阶段

    美国食品和药物管理局日前举行了一场听证会,以探讨一项旨在规避新生儿先天疾病风险的试管受精新技术是否能够进入人体实验阶段。借助这一新技术孕育的试管婴儿将有“一父两母”,并且此项产前基因操纵技术可能会使“定制婴儿”成真。   A new technology aimed at eliminating genetic2 disease in newborns would netbine the DNA3 of three people, instead of just two, to create a child, potentially redrawing ethical4 lines for designer babies.   The process works by replacing potentially variant5 DNA in the unfertilized eggs of a hopeful mother with disease-free genes7 from a donor8. US regulators today will begin weighing whether the procedure, used only in monkeys so far, is safe enough to be tested in humans.   Because the process would change only a small, specific part of genetic code, scientists say a baby would largely retain the physical characteristics of the parents. Still, DNA from all three -- mother, father and donor -- would remain with the child throughout a lifetime, opening questions about long-term effects for this generation, and potentially the next. Ethicists worry that allowing pre-birth gene1 manipulation may one day lead to build-to-order designer babies.   "Once you make this change, if a female arises from the process and goes on to have children, that change is passed on, so it's forever," Phil Yeske, chief science officer of the United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation, said by telephone. "That's uncharted territory; we just don't know what it means. Permanent change of the human germline has never been done before, and we don't know what will happen in future generations."   FDA Hearing   The Food and Drug Administration is scheduled today and tomorrow to explore the issue at a meeting, with doctors and researchers scheduled to talk. The FDA will then decide whether to allow scientists at Oregon Health & Science University in Portland, who engineered the approach, to move their testing program from macaque monkeys to woman.   Potentially, the procedure may cut off mitochondrial diseases that are passed down through females and occur in about 1 in 4,000 people. One example is Melas syndrome9, which causes a person to have continuing small strokes that damage their brains, leading to vision loss, problems with movement, dementia and death, according to the National Institutes of Health.   "What the FDA needs to think about is that this isn't a procedure to repair mitochondrial disease," said Vamsi Mootha, a professor of systems biology and medicine at Harvard Medical School inBoston who studies mitochondrial disorders10. "It's designed to prevent disease. It's designed to offer a woman who's a carrier for disease more options."   Shoukhrat Mitalipov, the researcher heading the Oregon team's work, declined to netment before the FDA meeting.   Earlier Method   From 1997 to 2003, about 30 children worldwide were born using a method that injected donor mitochondria DNA into eggs after they were fertilized6. The first baby born with this technique wasreported in 1997. In 2003, though, the FDA told fertility clinics that genetically11 manipulated embryos12 were considered a biological product, and subject to regulation, essentially13 halting the technique in humans.   The lives of those children should be thoroughly14 investigated before the new procedure is cleared for use in a human trial, said Sheldon Krimsky, a professor of Urban & Environmental Policy & Planning at Tufts University in Boston. 
    1 gene      n.遗传因子,基因 参考例句:
    A single gene may have many effects.单一基因可能具有很多种效应。
    The targeting of gene therapy has been paid close attention.其中基因治疗的靶向性是值得密切关注的问题之一。
    2 genetic      adj.遗传的,遗传学的 参考例句:
    It's very difficult to treat genetic diseases.遗传性疾病治疗起来很困难。
    Each daughter cell can receive a full netplement of the genetic information.每个子细胞可以收到遗传信息的一个完全补偿物。
    3 DNA      (缩)deoxyribonucleic acid 脱氧核糖核酸 参考例句:
    DNA is stored in the nucleus of a cell.脱氧核糖核酸储存于细胞的细胞核里。
    Gene mutations are alterations in the DNA code.基因突变是指DNA密码的改变。
    4 ethical      adj.伦理的,道德的,合乎道德的 参考例句:
    It is necessary to get the youth to have a high ethical concept.必须使青年具有高度的道德观念。
    It was a debate which aroused fervent ethical arguments.那是一场引发强烈的伦理道德争论的辩论。
    5 variant      adj.不同的,变异的;n.变体,异体 参考例句:
    We give professional suggestions according to variant tanning stages for each customer.我们针对每位顾客不同的日晒阶段,提供强度适合的晒黑建议。
    In a variant of this approach,the tests are data- driven.这个方法的一个变种,是数据驱动的测试。
    6 Fertilized      v

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