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3D打印模型解释鲨鱼游速

3D打印模型解释鲨鱼游速

分类:科技Science   更新:2015/5/23   来源:history

3D打印模型解释鲨鱼游速

    Scientists have used a 3D-printed model of shark skin to show how tooth-like scales help the predators1 to cruise efficiently2.
    科学家们运用3D打印模型解释了鲨鱼皮上的牙状鳞片如何提高鲨鱼的巡游速度。
    replica3 included tough " embedded4="" in="" a="" flexible="" style="cursor:pointer" onclick="window.open('/upimg/allimg/140515/1_140515084046_1.png')" />
    The printed replica included tough "denticles" embedded in a smooth, flexible membrane5
    Viewed up close, a shark's skin bristles6 with(充满) tiny teeth or "denticles" which aid swimming.    Engineers have tried to mimic7 the roughness of shark skin when designing swim suits and even racing8 cars.   But the denticles have never been so well reproduced before, says a report in the Journal of Experimental Biology.    George Lauder and his colleagues took a detailed9 scan of a tiny square of skin from a mako shark, and built a 3D model of a single denticle just 0.15mm long.    The challenge was then to manufacture a synthetic10 skin, with thousands of these denticles embedded in a smooth, flexible membrane.    "It took us about a year," said Prof Lauder, of Harvard University.   3D printing builds up new objects layer-by-layer, following a netputer-generated design. To print the shark skin, the scientists had to use two different materials for the hard, tooth-like structures and for the flexible base - much like the different coloured inks used to print a picture.    The particular shape of the denticles also posed difficulties: "Because they're overhung, the 3D printers have to print a supporting material, which you then have to remove," Prof Lauder told the BBC. "It took a while to work out all the tricks."   The artificial skin has impressed Oliver Crimmen, a fish expert at the Natural History Museum who has previously11 advised Speedo on swim suit design.    "I used to think, how on earth would you mimic that netplex structure accurately12?" he said. "3D printing is it - what a marvellous application for it."   Because the resolution of even the latest 3D printers is limited, the artificial denticles are about 10 times larger than the real ones seen on the skin of a mako shark.    Nonetheless, when the team stuck the new artificial skin onto a small, flexible paddle and studied it in a water tank, they were able to see the benefit sharks glean13 from their unusual scales.   A paddle with the new, toothy skin delivered a boost of up to 6.6% in swimming speed, netpared to one coated with the smooth membrane alone. The artificial denticles also allowed the paddle to travel the same simulated distance while using 5.9% less energy.   "That's a huge effect, when factored over the entire lifetime of an animal that is constantly swimming," said Prof Lauder.
    1 predators      n.食肉动物( predator的名词复数 );奴役他人者(尤指在财务或性关系方面) 参考例句:
    birds and their earthbound predators 鸟和地面上捕食它们的动物
    The eyes of predators are highly sensitive to the slightest movement. 捕食性动物的眼睛能感觉到最细小的动静。 来自《简明英汉词典》
    2 efficiently      adv.高效率地,有能力地 参考例句:
    The worker oils the machine to operate it more efficiently.工人给机器上油以使机器运转更有效。
    Local authorities have to learn to allocate resources efficiently.地方政府必须学会有效地分配资源。
    3 replica      n.复制品 参考例句:
    The original conservatory has been rebuilt in replica.温室已按原样重建。
    The young artist made a replica of the famous painting.这位年轻的画家临摹了这幅着名的作品。
    4 embedded      a.扎牢的 参考例句:
    an operation to remove glass that was embedded in his leg 取出扎入他腿部玻璃的手术
    He has embedded his name in the minds of millions of people. 他的名字铭刻在数百万人民心中。
    5 membrane      n.薄膜,膜皮,羊皮纸 参考例句:
    A vibrating membrane in the ear helps to convey sounds to the brain.耳膜的振动帮助声音传送到大脑。
    A plastic membrane serves as selective diffusion barrier.一层塑料薄膜起着选择性渗透屏障的作用。
    6 bristles      短而硬的毛发,刷子毛( bristle的名词复数 ) 参考例句:
    the bristles on his chin 他下巴上的胡楂子
    This job bristles with difficulties. 这项工作困难重重。
    7 mimic      v.模仿,戏弄;n.模仿他人言行的人 参考例句:
    A parrot can mimic a person's voice.鹦鹉能学人的声音。
    He used to mimic speech peculiarities of another.他过去总是模仿别人讲话的特点。
    8 racing  

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