[00:04.88]Why Are Maps Drawn1 with North at the Top ?
[00:11.42]Now it is hard to visualize2 a map that does not feature north at the top
[00:19.07]but this was not always so.
[00:23.43]The oldest known map in the accepted sense of the world was drawn about 3,800 BC,
[00:32.99]and represents the river Euphrates flowing through northern Mesopotamia, Iraq.
[00:41.85]This,and others that followed it,
[00:46.60]were little more than rough sketches3 of localized features;
[00:52.66]it was not until many centuries later that the ancient Greeks placed
[01:00.32]the science of map--making on a sound footing.
[01:06.27]At the forefront of the pioneers in the field
[01:11.73]was the Greek mathematician4 philopher Claudius Ptolemaeus (c.AD 90-168),
[01:22.31]more popularly known to history as Ptolemy.
[01:28.24]The last great scientist of the classical period,
[01:34.17]he was the first to draw a map tha