英语新闻】[资讯][运动][娱乐][生活][文教][经济][科技][时事]【英语考试】[专四][专八][大三][大四][大六][MBA][自考][公共][高考][中考][职称][初中][高中][笔译][金融][阅读]
留学英语】[GRE][GMAT][LSAT][PETS][TOEIC][出国考试]【TEM英语】[TEM介绍][TEM4指导][TEM4试题][TEM8指导][TEM8试题]
CET英语】[动态][技巧][真题][模拟题][语法][听力][口语][写作][翻译][阅读][词汇]【BEC英语】[动态][介绍][指导][试题][口语][初级][中级][高级][经验]
TOEFL托福】[动态][介绍][指导][真题][模拟题][技巧][词汇]【IELTS雅思】[技巧][模拟题][真题][听力][写作][阅读][词汇][口语][介绍][动态]
英语作文】[小学][初中][高中][大学][四级][六级][考研][指导][中考][高考]【英语故事】[双语][民间][情感][童话][寓言][幽默][传记]
英语笑话】[双语][司法][愚人][成人][儿童][动物][宗教][女性]【娱乐英语】[星座][时尚][英语][影视][幽默][名言][赠言][历史][脑筋][轻松][万花筒][异域][文库]
行业英语】[财会][商贸][外贸][运输][医务][传媒][电信][工程][公务员][法律][政治][技术][其他]【英语学习】[新概念][小笨霖][大学][洋话][疯狂][美国][专题][杂谈][方法][品牌]
生活英语】[旅游][日常][电话][购物][酒店][实用][市民]【工作英语】[简历][求职][商务][办公][会议]【奥运英语】[奥运][体育][术语][人物][运动][奥运知识][体坛][资讯]
法律英语】[涉外][案例][术语][法律]【英语口语】[名人][总统][情景][教程][听力技巧][口语技巧][音标][英语口语][俚语]
英文阅读】[心灵][散文][诗词][原版][文学][短文][少儿][初级][高级][文摘][科普][小说][技巧][双语]【写作翻译】[书信][发表][欣赏][贴士][点滴][写作][写作技巧][日常写作]
词汇语法】[专业词汇][特色词汇][马虎词汇][英语语法][语法技巧][词汇技巧][词海拾贝][分类词汇][新闻热词][日积月累]
您现在的位置: 3edu教育网 >> 英语角 >> IELTS雅思 >> 雅思模拟题 >> 正文    3edu教育网,教育第三方,完全免费,天天更新!

雅思考试阅读专题练习2

分类:雅思模拟题   更新:2017/9/13   来源:网络

  Obtaining Linguistic Data

  A

  Many procedures are available for obtaining data about a language. They range from a carefully planned, intensive field investigation in a foreign country to a casual introspection about one's mother tongue carried out in an armchair at home.

  B

  In all cases, someone has to act as a source of language data—an informant. Informants are (ideally) native speakers of a language, who provide utterances for analysis and other kinds of information about the language (e.g. translations, comments about correctness, or judgements on usage)。 Often, when studying their mother tongue, linguists act as their own informants, judging the ambiguity, acceptability, or other properties of utterances against their own intuitions. The convenience of this approach makes it widely used, and it is considered the norm in the generative approach to linguistics. But a linguist's personal judgements are often uncertain, or disagree with the judgements of other linguists, at which point recourse is needed to more objective methods of enquiry, using non-linguists as informants. The latter procedure is unavoidable when working on foreign languages, or child speech.

  D

  Today, researchers often tape-record informants. This enables the linguist's claims about the language to be checked, and provides a way of making those claims more accurate ('difficult' pieces of speech can be listened to repeatedly)。 But obtaining naturalistic, good-quality data is never easy. People talk abnormally when they know they are being recorded, and sound quality can be poor. A variety of tape-recording procedures have thus been devised to minimise the 'observer's paradox' (how to observe the way people behave when they are not being observed)。 Some recordings are made without the speakers being aware of the fact—a procedure that obtains very natural data, though ethical objections must be anticipated. Alternatively, attempts can

[1] [2] [3] 下一页

| 设为首页 | 加入收藏 | 联系我们 | 版权申明 | 隐私策略 | 关于我们 | 手机3edu | 返回顶部 |