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2018年雅思考试阅读理解复习辅导16

分类:雅思阅读   更新:2018/4/12   来源:网络

  Celebrity Endorsements: An Examination of Gender and Consumers’ Attitudes

  Celebrity endorsements have long been used as a source of marketing messages to promote a wide variety of products and services. Companies have been spending huge amounts of money to have athletes and other celebrities endorse both sports and non-sports products. Celebrity images can be found in print, radio, and approximately 20 percent of all television commercials (Boyd and Shank 2004)。 Within a relatively short time, the amount of money spent on athletes in advertising has skyrocketed. In 1986, companies paid approximately $100 million for endorsements, licensing rights, and advertising (Peetz, Parks, and Spencer 2004)。 Ten years later, that amount had risen to more than $1 billion, as athlete endorsement expenditures have hovered around $1 billion dollars annually for the past ten years (Peetz, Parks, and Spencer 2004)。

  The actions of athletic products manufacturer Nike underscores the nature of spending on athlete endorsements. During an eight-month period in 2004, Nike invested $192 million in endorsement deals with National Basketball Association (NBA) rookies Lebron James ($90 million) and Carmello Anthony ($15 million); NBA star Kobe Bryant ($45 million); tennis star Serena Williams ($40 million); 14-year old U.S. soccer talent Freddy Adu ($1 million); and Canadian world champion hurdler Perdita Felicien ($1 million)。 These were deals within an eight-month timeframe and did not take into account existing deals with golfer Tiger Woods, National Football League player Michael Vick (currently serving a prison sentence and suspended by the NFL), Major League Baseball’s Derek Jeter, track’s Marion Jones (another athlete who recently admitted to drug use and had her 2000 Olympic medals stripped), and soccer’s Mia Hamm (Thomaselli 2004)。

  As a result of the pervasiveness of celebrity endorsement in advertising, much has been studied and written about this

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