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书面表达解题策略:缩写与改写 (Precis and Rewriting)

书面表达解题策略:缩写与改写 (Precis and Rewriting)

分类:写作技巧   更新:2010/4/3   来源:网络

书面表达解题策略:缩写与改写 (Precis and Rewriting)

A.缩写

  缩写就是要求学生认真领会所读文章的中心思想或主要内容,经过集中思维概括提炼之后,用几句话加以总结成一篇短文。缩写应注意以下几个问题:

  1)利用原文中所给的语言材料,用自己的话来写。2)概括要全面,删去细节,只要主要事实。3)语言要简练。缩写后的句子的词数必须少于原文句子中的词数,如:I remember that I saw the film a few days ago. → I remember seeing the film the other day. He was so young that he could not lift the heavy box. → He was too young to lift the heavy box.4)缩写后的文章意思要通顺,行文要连贯。阅读短文,然后进行缩写。

  「范例」 The poorer countries are called“the developing countries.”They have special problems. Sometimes the land is too poor to grow anything on. The land can be improved but a lot of things must be done first. New farming methods(耕作方法)must be introduced. The people must be educated. Water must be found.

  Many of these problems are too big for one country to solve alone. Help should be given by the richer countries, but it must be the right sort of help. Money is not enough. The developing countries must be helped to help themselves.

  要求:缩写成 25个词左右。

  参考答案

  The poor developing countries have many special problems which can be solved with the right help from the richer countries.

  「解题要点与技巧」

  1)快速阅读短文3遍,抓住文章的大意。
  2)表达一个完整的意思,由于字数的限制,用一个主从复合句要比用2—3个简单句理想。
  3)缩写后的句子必须概括原文意思。

  B.改写

  改写是用不同形式表达同一个意思的写作方式。改写的过程是重新构思、重新裁剪的过程,使之成为与原文内容相同而表达形式不同的作品。文章形式的改写主要有以下两种:

  1)人称(或数)的改写。把原文的人称(或数),变换叙述角度,其他则不需要变动。通过这种训练可以帮助学生掌握人称(或数)与动词及所有格的搭配。根据叙述的角度准确灵活地运用各种人称(或数),以防止人称混乱而造成的杂乱无章,影响对文章主旨的表达。改写可以就课文进行改写,例如把新编高中第一册Lesson 6“Look Carefully and Learn”中的第三人称 My friend Paul改为第一人称叙述,也可以利用其他文章进行改写。

  「范例」 用第三人称改写下面文字:

  I\'m Dick, a boy of thirteen. I study in a middle school. I live with my grandparents, for my parents work in a factory far away and they live in the factory. They come to see us only on holidays.

  I have a friend named Tom, who is a black boy. We often go to school together in the morning. Sometimes I go to Tom\'s home and do my homework together with him. In this way we can help and learn from each other.

  提示:保留原文字数,把原文中的主语I改为he.

  参考答案

  He\'s Dick, a boy of thirteen. He studies in a middle school. He lives with his grandparents, for his parents work in a factory far away and they live in the factory. They come to see their parents and child only on holidays.

  He has a friend named Tom, who is a black boy. They often go to school together in the morning. Sometimes he goes to Tom\'s home and does his homework together with him. In this way they can help and learn from each other.

  「解题要点与技巧」

  (1)主语的改动牵涉到与之相应的谓语动词的变化。如:I am…→ He is
  (2)主语人称的变化涉及到人称所有格的变化,如:My brother→ his/her brother,又如,文中的 to see us→ to see their parents and child
  (3)人称的变化不但涉及到单数,也涉及到复数,如 they→we

  2)体裁改写

  体裁改写就是改变原文的表达方式,但原文的意思不变。最常见的改写形式是把对话或短剧改为故事,或把故事改为对话或短剧。这种改写比以上改写难度大。在人称、句式、语法等方面都要做较大的变动。

  「解题要求与技巧」

  1)首先要把书面语改为口语
  2)注意时态的应用。
  3)人称、句式、语法都要起变化。
  4)对话的内容必须与原文的内容要点相同。
  5)严格控制词数。

  注意:改写除以上所述两种外,在教学实践中还有:时态和语态改写,引语改写(直接引语变间接引语,间接引语变直接引语),反义改写(如 A good teacher改为A terrible teacher)这些都是考查学生写作能力的有效措施。

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